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Models, Models, and more Models…

Models are at the heart of many digital transformation initiatives but models will have impact one way or another on Configuration Management. With the team from the I4.0 Committee of the IPX Congress, I have been discussing the potential impact model-based approaches will have on configuration management. To support us in this discussion and analysis, we have created an overview of the types of models we so far have identified and mapped to the V model for development. 

While this is still a work in progress, I would like to ask you for feedback to see if this resonates with you and, if not, where there is room for improvement. Please feel free to comment or reach out to me. 

First, let’s look at the definition of a Model:

 A digital graphical, conceptual, mathematical, logical, and/or physical construct of a real system, subsystem, or component designed to convey information to humans and machines in order to support activities in the value chain.
This definition of ‘Model’ has slightly changed compared to the one we used in ‘A Glimpse into the Future of CM – Part 3’ by adding that a model is ‘designed to convey information to humans and machines’. Whereas in the past, documents were typically intended to convey information to humans only. 
In the previous version we only defined Application Models, Definition Models and Verification/Simulation models. The latter we renamed to Analysis, Verification & Validation Models and we added 3 more, being Manufacturing Planning Models, Realization Models, and Operations and Sustainment Models. 
Copyrights for V-Model by Institute for Process Excellence

Application Models

Models intended to define, capture, analyze and control requirements and their linkages.

These models can represent specific features, behaviors, or aspects of a system, subsystem, or component to derive and define requirements and verification approaches. 

 Also referred to as: As Required / Functional / Logical 

Definition Models

Models intended to communicate information to build, test, and maintain items (HW and SW).  

These models can represent items, attributes, EBOM, functionality, 3D geometry, processes, software models (UML),  etc.

Also referred to as: As Designed / As Engineered.


Manufacturing Planning Models

Models intended to plan the materialization of the product definition in the factory, field, and supply chain.

Manufacturing models to support build, maintenance, or upgrade process (re-)sequencing, incl. work-instruction finalization and MBOM.

Also referred to as: As Planned / As Ordered.

Realization Models 

Models intended to represent the tooling, production lines, and factories to manufacture, inspect, ship, and install the product incl. Operations BOM. 
Also referred to as: As Supplied / As Built / As Delivered / As Shipped / As Installed.

Operation and Sustainment Models

Models intended to represent the product in use (based on actual configuration/instance) in its environment to enable (predictive) operation, maintenance, reuse, and decommissioning activities.

Also referred to as: As Maintained / As Serviced / As Decommissioned / As Retired / As Disposed. 


Analysis, Verification & Validation Models

Models are intended to analyze, verify and validate various aspects of the conformance of items to their requirements and record their results.
Also referred to as: As Verified / As Validated / As Tested.
So what do you think? Please let us know.
The author is chair of the Industry 4.0 committee of the IPX Congress formed by cross industry leaders from ALSTOM – Mark Pinchak, ASML – Martin Haket and Martijn Dullaart, Cummins – Greg Russ (Retired), Emerson – Susan Despotopulos, Moog – Max GravelIpX – Ray Wozny and Northrop Grumman – Paul Nelson and Rachel Holyoak. 
Special thanks to IpX – Institute for Process Excellence for allowing me to use their picture of the V model for development from the CM2 course materials.

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